History Of Fulani Herdsmen And Farmers Clashes In Nigeria

The recent attacks by Fulani herdsmen is on the increase, with the most recent attacks in June 2016 occurring in Ossissa community in Ndokwa east local government area, Delta state and three more communities (Ugondo, Turan, Gabo Nenzev) in Logo Local Government Area, Benue State, total killings involving no fewer than 60 persons. The Federal Government recently ordered an inquiry, military crackdown on the group and affirmed its plans to establish cattle ranches as a solution to the frequent clashes between herdsmen and farmers in Nigeria.

This turbulence stands out because of the seeming boldness of the perpetrators and the mystery surrounding their real agenda. While many believe that it is a simply a farming, grazing land and water dispute, whereby they clash with farmers who accuse them of damaging their crops and failure to control their animals, the Fulanis under the cattle breeders association claims that they are being attacked by gangs from farming communities who try to steal their cattle and they are just defending themselves. But why do these attacks extend to mass killings and butchery? That is the argument before us now, to fully understand the fundamental purpose of what this militant group demands, the cost of their action and seek a proper way forward to curb their attacks.

According to the 2015 Global Terrorism Index, these Fulani militants are the fourth deadliest militant group in the world with a record killing of 1229 people in 2014.

However, the Federal Government has stated that inquiries have established that most of these herdsmen who were involved in these clashes in Nigerian communities are not Nigerian citizens and due to the ECOWAS Transhumance Protocol; which has given the right of free movement to citizens of member countries, it cannot stop non-citizens of Nigeria from grazing their cattle across the country.


The Fulani people

The Fula people also known as Fulani in Hausa language, are a mass population widely dispersed and culturally diverse in all of Africa, but most predominate in West Africa. The Fulani’s generally speak the Fula language. A significant number of them are nomadic in nature, herding cattle, goats and sheep across the vast dry grass lands of their environment, keeping isolate from the local farming communities, making them the world’s largest pastoral nomadic group. They are massively spread over many countries, and are found mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa, but also in Sudan and Egypt. The main Fulani sub-groups in Nigeria are: Fulbe Adamawa, Fulbe Mbororo, Fulbe Sokoto, Fulbe Gombe, and the Fulbe Borgu.

Economic effects of the Fulani Herdsmen And Farmers Clashes In Nigeria

According to Mercy corps, the incessant attacks have a drastic effect on food security and have caused a loss of $14 billion in three years. This global humanitarian organization, funded by the British Department for International Development (BFID) carried out a research between 2013 and 2016 on the causes and effects of the perennial clashes between herdsmen and farmers in Nigeria. The study also pointed out that ongoing, conflict is thwarting the country’s economic development to an enormous extent, and if conflicts were resolved the average household affected today could see income increase by at least 64 percent, and potentially 210 percent or higher. And also, states affected by Herdsmen-Farmers conflicts lost an average of 47% of taxes (Internally Generated Revenue) during these attacks.

Other economic impacts include: impeding trade practices, reduction in crop yield, displacement of farmers, loss of lives and properties, loss of products in storage and destruction of public and private buildings.

Timeline of Fulani Herdsmen And Farmers Clashes In Nigeria

Here are some of the attacks by Fulani Herdsmen compiled from various news headlines:

  • September 30, 2012: A Fulani herdsman had been accused of murdering one Benjamin Chegue on his farm, the Director of Personal Management in the Isoko North Local Government Council In Delta State.
  • April 5th, 2014: Assailants opened fire on community leaders and residents that were meeting in Galadima village. At least 200 people were killed and an unknown number were injured in the attack. Sources attributed the attack to Fulani assailants.
  • February 18th, 2016: Five persons were killed by Fulani herdsmen at Okokolo village in Agatu Local Government Area of Benue State.
  • March 5th 2016: About 500 persons were killed by the rampaging herdsmen following a siege on Agatu local government area of Benue state. These communities include; Aila, Akwu, Adagbo, Okokolo, Ugboju, Odugbeho, Ogbaulu, Egba and Obagaji.
  • April 12th, 2016: Fulani herdsmen attacked two villages in Gashaka Local Government Area of Taraba state on and killed 15 people.
  • April 19th, 2016: Twenty-five local government areas in Delta State grounded activities on the Benin-Asaba Expressway. They reported that the herdsmen allegedly killed over 23 persons. Interestingly, the police recovered 20 AK-47 rifles, 70 dane guns, 30 double-barrel guns and over 1,000 live ammunition, mostly from Fulani herdsmen during this period.
  • April 21st, 2016: Farmers in Lagun, Iyana Offa, Offa, Atagba, Lapata and their surrounding communities in Lagelu Local Council Area of Ibadan, Oyo State, alleged that a group of Fulani armed men attacked their communities at night, injured a guard and carted away valuables.
  • April 25th, 2016: Fulani herdsmen attack seven villages in Nimbo in Uzo- Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State. About 40 persons were reportedly killed.
  • June 16th, 2016: A 45-year-old renowned farmer was shot by gunmen suspected to be Fulani herdsmen in Ossissa community in Ndokwa east local government area of Delta state.
  • June 20th, 2016: At Least 59 Deaths have been recorded following recent attacks on Benue communities such as Ugondo, Turan, Gabo Nenzev – in the Logo Local Government Area by Suspected Herdsmen

Several agencies have proffered solutions to the federal government such as, mediation by both community heads and herdsmen associations, provision of security and patrols on attacked communities, fencing and funding solutions for displaced farmers, etc.
I do hope this conflict is resolved amicably soon enough to avoid more loss of lives or avoid an imminent retaliation.

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Omawumi Eyekpimi is a Freelance writer, Self-Proclaimed Intellect, Loves to write, She enjoys; Fun, Music, Motion Picture, The Arts, and Books...♥™!

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