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Problem and Prospect of Vocational Education in Nigeria

Problem and Prospect of Vocational Education in Nigeria


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The development of vocational education in Nigeria and across the world has attracted diverse views worthy of consideration.

Problem and Prospect of Vocational Education in Nigeria

Vocational technical education is viewed as that training which consists of the acquisition of   knowledge, skills, competencies, structural activities,   through formal, on-the-job or off-the job training and which provides the trainee the opportunity of employment in different industries and the capability of being self-employed. Another definition provided by the   Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) stated that   in addition to general education, vocational education entails the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge of different occupations in diverse sectors of economic and social life.

It is in the light of this that Nigeria join her counterpart all over the globe to ensure the development and growth of vocational Education.  To provide a plat form where young people see vocational education as challenging and worthwhile. To achieve the objective of revamping of repositioning VTE in Nigeria, the Federal Government instituted the Education Trust Fund (ETF) which was set up by law in 1993 to provide funding and upgrade the quality of VTE in Nigeria.


PROBLEMS of Vocational Education in Nigeria

Lack of functional policies and strategies

This is particularly necessary for Nigeria to address the socio-economic developments currently going on globally. VTE must amend and revise some of its curricula to effectively dress the need for vocational development in Nigeria.

. Sansaliyu (1999), identified the existing gap between policy decisions and implementation and therefore stated that. VTE policy must center around vocational technical education and should be flexible and adaptable to the needs of technological development in the country. The policy decisions should ensure that VTE curricular produces graduates that meet international technology job requiremen.According to Manfred and Jennifer (2004) VTE has a significant role to  play in raising the quality of VTE graduates, increasing job satisfaction , motivation and productivity.

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Lack of adequate awareness of the importance of vocational technical education as a pivotal element in the education industry

Lack of sufficient   People Learning Vocational education in authentic and real-world environments

Lack of Motivation in Encouraging continuity in vocational technical education and training

Lack and inadequate guidance and counseling system which will help to put students in proper career path.

Inadequate and qualified trainers.

The use of qualified and certified professional is essential for the aims and objective of VTE to be realized. These professionals must play significant role by contributing and promoting vocational technical education polices, reforms and strategies in Nigeria. The professionals must have all the certified necessary skills, abilities and capabilities for carrying out the programme as this is the factor which determines the success of the VTE Programs.

Lack of ambitious and realistic goals to enhance Nigeria to be the most competitive and knowledge based economy by the year 2020

Lack and insufficient investment in quality vocational technical education system.

It is essential that the government, education stakeholders and employers  provides adequate support to vocational technical education programs, This will eliminate the many problems being encountered   weak capital base, poor funding, poor technology among others, which result in graduates with low skills.

Problem of insufficient and current data for the monitoring and evaluation of progress in vocational technical education

Lack of proper and efficient implementation of VTE policies

Lack of uniform standard and certification in VTE

The lack of uniform standard in training and certification at all tiers of government and VTE institutions make it impossible to integrate different vocational education training into one national system. Therefore There is need for government to harmonize and develop a standard and international acceptable certification criteria. This will assist in producing only qualified graduates

Setting up a National and Local Structure of VTE Councils:

In order to encourage and structure participation by the general public

The survival of vocational technical education in Nigeria, training and learning must take place in a conducive environment equipped with all VTE required tools and equipment’s.

Peter and William (1999) advocated the gaining of experience from a good working environment. So as to build accurate representations of reality, create consensual meanings in social activities, experience remains very important. Experience gained in a good work environment should be regarded the best teacher.

PROSPECT of Vocational Education in Nigeria


The need to Institute flexible, workable and adaptable programme

It is pertinent that VTE adopt and implement flexible workable and adaptable programs

The government and other stakeholders should ensure high quality and skilled vocational professionals:  This is particularly important if VTE Programs must succeed.

VTE institutions must ensure the Promotion and proper Coordination of education, Industry and Work Environment: This is essential to produce high quality VTE manpower

The government and other stakeholders must Encourage Continuing Vocational Technical Education:

This necessary at all levels of education and the society.

The government and VTE institution must invest in Quality Vocational Technical Education Programme:  This development shall propel rapid technological and industrial development in the country

VTE Institution must ensure that Training and learning should take Place in Authentic and Real Work Environment:

The government must ensure an equitable Sharing ratio of Education Trust Fund (ETF) among the Three Tiers of Higher Institutions in Nigeria: This fund must be channeled towards VTE programs in the country.

The government and VTE Institutions must ensure the Adoption of Uniform Standard of training and Certification: This must in compliance with professional VTE requirement.

The government should ensure the Setting up a National and Local Structure of VTE Councils: This is essential to facilitate the regulation of VTE programs and to encourage the participation of  the general public in the vocational technical education programme.

The government must ensure that VTE institution Keep Appropriate and Up-to-date data and Indicators for Vocational Technical Education: This is essential because

Insufficient/incomplete data and indicators for vocational technical education hamper assessment of progress.

VTE Institution must establish Assessment Criteria:  This Assessment criteria should be based on occupational and educational standards and should reflect what a competent person can do   rather than what can be achieved at the end of a specific course..

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Ifiokobong Ibanga

Ifiokobong Ibanga is the founder of InfoGuideNIgeria.com. You can get in touch with him on Instagram @ifiokobong. If you need a personal assistance on this topic, kindly send a message. Much Love!

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