In this post, I will discus the top 10 cultivated crops in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria and Their Economic Value.
Ibadan is considered to be the largest city in West Africa and the second largest in Africa. It is endowed with various mineral and natural resources that has not been fully exploited.
However one area that has continually produced good result for the people of Ibadan, in Oyo State is her agricultural prowess. Agriculture is the highest employer of labour and its close proximity to Lagos, Nigeria has contributed greatly to its boom of agriculture.
It is located in the South Western part of Nigeria on a gently rolling hills running in the northwest and southeast direction. A lot of farmers have been capitalizing on the high rainfall to grow crops where they can earn some money. Below are some cultivated crops grown in Ibadan and their economic values:
Cassava is one of the major crops cultivated in Ibadan, Oyo state. It is locally called ege in yoruba. It grows well under poor soil and it can be grown with other crops such as vegetable, oil palm, coconut, groundnut and melon.
It takes about 6 months to 3 years for one to harvest it. Cassava contains vitamins and minerals which makes it an edible diet, though it is very high in carbohydrate. Cassava can be processed into starch which serves as a very important raw material in the the industry. Some of its economic values are;
- It can be used as thickeners in food
- It is used as a stabilizer in foods such as ice-cream
- Glucose sugar can be produced from the starch in cassava
- Cassava chips are also used in animal feed.
- It is used to produce high value products like confectioneries, sweeteners, glue, textile, papers and drugs
Yam is considered to have some cultural values, hence it is widely grown in Ibadan. It also brings in much money to its farmers when sold in the market, hence it’s huge popularity.
Yam is rich in vitamin c and essential minerals with a high concentration of dietary fibers. Yam is easily grown here by planting the tubers or using tubers from previous planting season.
One of the major economic values of yam is when it is processed as flour to produce what is called “elubo” in Yoruba, otherwise known as yam flour which is then used to prepare a very popular meal called Amala. Amala is a special food which is widely eaten in Ibadan. Some vital economic values yam has are:
- Yam is used medicinalky as a heart stimulant due to the presence of alkaloids
- It is also used as an industrial starch
The nature of the soil in Ibadan coupled with the rainfall pattern makes Ibadan a good place for planting maize.
It is a very popular cereal enjoyed by many. It is locally referred to as agbado. Maize is high in vitamin A, C, E and essential minerals. It contains about 6% of protein.
Maize commands a very high economic value in Ibadan; as such it is usually processed into flour in feed mills such as eagle flour. It is locally processed into flour to make oki by soaking in water and boiling. It is enjoyed by many of the inhabitants of Ibadan. Other important economic values in maize are;
- It is used in the production of whiskey from distilled corn.
- The corn germ produced during the separation of corn component is used to produce glue and its also used to feed livestock.
- Corn oil obtained from maize is also used in many cosmetics, soaps, medicines, and other products.
Cocoa is very popular among the farmers of Ibadan who earns considerable amount of money from it sales. Cocoa involves a high number of labour force hence it is run mostly by families with enough cash to cultivate it.Th
Cocoa cultivation was greatly aided by Chief Obafemi Awolowo, former premier of western Nigeria, when Ibadan was the capital. The presence of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) in Oyo state also contributed to its growth.
Cocoa can start to produce pods from the fifth year which can continue to its tenth year. On average it produces 20 to 50 beans per pods if well maintained.
Cocoa has a high value in the markets hence it is usually processed to make chocolate which is high in protein, potassium and iron. Others uses include;
- Due to its antiseptic nature, it is used to treat burns, cough, dry lips, fever, malaria, rheumatism, snakebite
- When processed into butter, it is used to manufacture of tobacco, soap and cosmetics
- The husk from cocoa is used as an organic fertilizer and in making liquid soaps
Cocoyam is enjoyed by many household in Ibadan hence it is grown by many farmers both on subsistence level and for commercial agriculture.
Cocoyam is grown as a root crop because of its edible corms and leaves and it’s regarded as a guaranteed security crop because of its affordability. It contains majorly protein, starch and water and the leaves are a source of vitamin A and C.
Cocoyam corm is used to manufacture drugs and paper due to its high concentration of mucilage.
Sorghum is widely used to feed both animals and man. It is majorly cultivated in the Northern part of the country but enjoys good growth here in Ibadan, Oyo State.
Sorghum is usually harvested between October/November although this will depend on the variety of the sorghum.
It is usually used to produce alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks in the industries hence it is of high economic value. Nigerian breweries, situated in Ibadan, Oyo State depend largely on sorghum from farmers for their production. Important economic values include:
- Sorghum malt could be used to make biscuits, weaning foods
- Sorghum flour is used for making bread
- It is largely used in making animal and poultry feeds
One reason why mellon continues to be cultivated in Ibadan, Oyo state is because its seeds are used to make a local soup known as egusi.
It is high in protein and it greatly compliments the starchy rich grains like maize, rice and sorghum.
The yellow oil contained in mellon is usually extracted in factories, which is then sold out to consumers.
Soyabeans is used mainly to make soya milk in various parts of Ibadan. It has a very high protein coupled with its dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals.
Soyabeans is usually harvested 100 to 150 days after planting and it is usually done manually using large labor force.
Soyabeans is industrially used to make milk substitutes and flour. Other notable uses are:
- It is a good source of animal feed for poultry, pork, cattle, other farm animals and pets.
- Biodiesel fuel can be processed from soybeans oil
- Candles can be produced from soybeans oil
Locally referred to as ila is a very popular vegetable crop in Ibadan, Nigeria. Okro is rich in vitamins, minerals, and plant proteins and it is said to contain almost equal amount of amino acid as in soyabeans.
Okra is usually boiled in water resulting in slimy soups and sauces. Okra fruit can be used as food thickeners
It has application in medicine as a blood volume expander and it is used industrially to glare papers and manufacture of confectioneries.
Peppers are grown in Ibadan but not on a wide scale as in northern Nigeria; but it does enjoy high patronage here.
Pepper can be planted in a loam or silt loam soil with good water holding capacity and also on any soil types with well drained soils.
Pepper is used for cosmetic production, condiment and medicine as well as ornaments in gardens. It is a good source of natural colours and antioxidant compounds.
Ibadan to many represents the rustic appeal of an ancient city, but that has not stopped its inhabitants from cultivating high value crops that has gone to earn it great wealth.
If you are planning going into agriculture, I would suggest you move to the city of Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria, where you are assured of reaping great harvest due to favorable climatic condition which are necessary for growth.
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