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Education

WAEC Syllabus for General Agriculture

WAEC Syllabus for General Agriculture. WAEC Syllabus for General Agriculture is available for all candidates who want to participate in the examination. The West African examination council (WAEC) has officially introduced a syllabus that will guide all the WAEC candidates who wish to write the WAEC examination this year. For a very successful WAEC General Agriculture examination for this year, you need to check out the available areas of concentration. It has been divided into sections with chapters, followed by the topics to be covered in preparation for the exams. In the WAEC Syllabus for General Agriculture, you will also see the format of how the WAEC General Agriculture questions will be presented. Jamb form 

There are always 3 sections to answer questions from. Paper 1 is Objective questions, paper 2 is essay questions, and paper 3 is practical section. Where paper one (1) carries 1 hour for 50 marks; paper two (2) carries 16 marks for 2 hours, while paper three (3) carries 2 hours for 60 marks.

WAEC Syllabus for General Agriculture

This WAEC syllabus is for both the O’level WAEC and General Certificate Examination (GCE) candidates. Final year students in the senior secondary school level and external candidates are eligible to make use of this syllabus and prepare ahead of the examination.

See the full detailed information concerning the WAEC General Agriculture Syllabus below.

PREAMBLE

This syllabus has been structured to assess learners’ knowledge and skills in the management of the soil, raising crops and animals; processing, storage and marketing of agricultural produce and for keeping records and accounts.

It will help to effectively assess the scientific, vocational and technological competencies of candidates to fit into the various sub-sectors of agriculture and for tertiary education.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The syllabus is designed to assess candidates’

(1)        knowledge and understanding of agricultural principles and practices;

(2)        skills in laboratory and field work involving carrying out agricultural experiments, projects and farm work; Pounds to Naira

(3)        scientific skills including observation, classification and  interpretation of agricultural data;

(4)        skills in setting up and managing agribusinesses;

(5)        ability to apply scientific knowledge and skills in solving agricultural problems;

(6)        understanding of the value chain concept for maintaining food quality and safety standards.

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:  Will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions all of which must be answered within 1 hour for 50 marks. Jamb Result

PAPER 2:  Will consist of ten essay questions divided into five sections, Sections A, B,   C, D and E  covering the following areas of the syllabus:

  • Section A:   Introduction to Agriculture and Farm Mechanization
  • Section B:   Soil Uses and Management
  • Section C:   Crop production
  • Section D:   Animal Production
  • Section E:   Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension.

Each section will consist of two questions.  Candidates will be required to    answer one question only from each section for 16 marks. The paper will last 2 hours.

PAPER 3: Will be a practical test for school candidates or alternative to practical work

test for private candidates.  Each version will consist of four questions all of which must be answered within 2 hours for 60 marks. Dollar to Naira Rate

DETAILED SYLLABUS

 

CONTENTS NOTES
   INTRODUCTION TO

AGRICULTURE

 

1.   Importance of

agriculture to the

national economy

(a)     Definition and

branches of

agriculture

 

(b)   Role of agriculture in                           the national economy

 

 

1.      Meaning, types and

importance of agricultural      education in national

development

(a)   Meaning and types of            agricultural  education

 

 

 

 

 

(b)     Importance of

agricultural  education

 

 

 

 

(c)   Agricultural

occupations

 

 

 

 

 

(d)  Job description

and entry

requirements for

agricultural

occupations

 

 

 

 

3.   Measurements in

agriculture

(a)   Calculations in

agriculture

 

 

 

(b)  Comparison  between

indigenous measurement

and standardized units of measurement.

 

4.   Land and its uses

(a)   Uses of land:

Agricultural and non-

agricultural uses

 

(b)   Land tenure  systems in

West Africa

 

 

(c)  Effects of land  tenure systems  on agricultural  production

 

5.        Introduction to forestry

 

(a)   Definition of

forest and

forestry

 

(b) Salient features

of forest

 

 

 

6.   Forest products and their

contribution to national

development

 

(a)   Types of plants and

animals in the forest

 

 

 

(b)   Contributions

of forests to national

development

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c)    Meaning, causes and

effects of deforestation

 

 

 

(d)    Forest management

practices

 

 

(e)   Game and wildlife

conservation

 

7.   Sustainable

agriculture and

good agricultural

practices (GAP)

 

(a)   The concepts of sustainable

agriculture and good

agricultural practices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)   Factors influencing

Good agricultural practices

and sustainable agricultural

production in West Africa.

 

 

 

8.   Development of agriculture

(a)   Meaning and objectives of

agricultural

development

 

 

 

 

 

(b)   Problems of agricultural development in West Africa

 

 

 

 

 

(c)   Role of government and other agencies in agricultural development

 

 

 

B.   SOIL USES AND

MANAGEMENT

1.Origin and formation of soils

 

(a)  Classification and

formation of rocks

 

 

(b)   Processes of soil     formation

 

 

 

 

(c)  Factors of soil formation:

parent material,

topography, living organisms, climate and time

 

(d)   Soil profile Meaning,

description and the

importance of soil profile

 

 

 

 

 

2.      Nature, composition and

properties of soil

(a)   Components of soil

 

 

 

 

 

(b)       Properties of soil:

Physical and chemical

properties

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.      Land preparation practices

 

(a) Methods of land preparation:

(i)   Indigenous  methods Waec Result

 

 

 

(ii)  Mechanized  methods

 

 

(b)  Effects of indigenous and

mechanized methods of land

preparation on the soil

 

4.   Plant nutrients and

nutrient cycles

(a)   Classification

and sources of

plant nutrients

 

(b)   Functions of

plant nutrients

 

 

(c)   Deficiency symptoms of

nutrients in plants

 

 

(d)   Nitrogen and carbon cycles

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Soil fertility and its

maintenance

(a)  Meaning of soil

fertility and soil

productivity

 

(b)   Characteristics

of fertile soil

 

 

 

(c)   Methods of

maintaining

and improving

soil fertility

 

(d)   Classification

of fertilizers

 

 

 

 

(e)   Preparation of

compost

 

 

(f)   Methods of

fertilizer

application

 

 

 

 

(g)   Factors

affecting

fertilizer use

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The branches should include crop production, animal production, horticulture, farm mechanization, soil management, fisheries, forestry, agricultural economics and extension.

 

 

 

The roles of agriculture in the economic development of the nation. E.g. food, shelter, raw material, as well as the inter-dependence of agriculture and industry, will be assessed.

 

 

 

 

Types should include formal e.g. general, pre-vocational and vocational; non-formal e.g. agricultural extension and agricultural youth clubs; informal e.g. apprenticeship.

Merits and demerits of the formal type should be assessed.

 

Importance should include manpower development, acquisition of leadership skills, inculcating the spirit of voluntarism in the youth, strengthening democracy and enhancing rural development.

 

Assessment should cover the major divisions of occupations in agriculture e.g. production of crops and animals, agricultural mechanization, processing of agricultural produce, landscaping, agricultural resource management, forestry, teaching and research and provision of services.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calculation of area, volume, percentage, plant density, yield per unit area, rate of application of fertilizers and pesticides, seed rate and dressing percentage of carcasses are required.

 

Advantages and disadvantages of using indigenous and standardized units of measurement are required.

 

 

 

Uses of land for agriculture, forestry, game and wildlife, fisheries should be assessed.

 

 

Description of the systems should include communal land ownership, free-hold title, lease-hold title, tenancy.

 

Effects should include the merits and demerits of each system.

 

 

 

 

Differences between forestry and forests are required.

 

Knowledge of the salient features should include the following: long term activity; occupies large area for a long period of time; develop over several years; poses lots of risks; provides business opportunities.

 

 

 

 

 

Types of plants:  trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers, fungi etc.

Types of animals:  birds, insects, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, snails etc.

 

Knowledge and understanding of contributions of the forest to national development: conservation of climate, water, soil, plant and animal species; sustenance of agricultural production; provision of wood for industry, construction and fuel.

Uses of timber and non-timber forest products:

–   Timber products for buildings, furniture,

railway,  paper, boats and canoes, carving,

utensils, toys, educational equipment, etc

–   Non-timber forest products such as game

and wildlife, skins and hides, plant medicine,

foods and spices, ropes, roofing materials,

sponge, etc.

 

Contribution of forest and forest products to employment, income generation (both local and foreign) social and educational activities and health.

 

Knowledge and understanding of effects of deforestation on the environment and the national economy are required.

 

 

Management skills should include: selective exploitation of forest resources and forest regeneration.

 

Importance of game and wildlife and its socio-economic contributions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concept of sustainable agriculture should include practices that address problems of soil fertility, pest control and environmental degradation and ensures continued agricultural productivity.

 

Good agricultural practices that ensure the attainment of acceptable food safety and quality standards are required.

Examples of sustainable agricultural practices and good agricultural practices in West Africa are required.

Knowledge of the relationships between the two concepts should be assessed.

 

 

 

Factors should include social, technological, economic and political. Physical factors such as climate change as well as food quality and safety standards should also be assessed.

 

 

 

 

Objectives of agricultural development in West Africa should include: self sufficiency in food production, improved traditional cash crop production for export, production of non-traditional crops and animals for export, practice of sustainable agriculture and production of industrial raw materials.

 

Problems should include: land tenure systems, inadequate social amenities, low level of education, presence of devastating diseases, low access to extension services, ageing farming population, poor transportation systems and limited knowledge of improved technologies.

Solutions to problems should also be assessed.

 

Roles played by agencies such as ministry responsible for agriculture, research institutions, banks, processing companies, universities, NGO’s should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should be limited to only the main types of rocks – igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.

 

Understanding of the process of weathering of rocks (physical, chemical and biological), transportation and deposition of weathered materials, role of organic matter are required.

 

 

The roles played by each factor should be assessed.

 

 

 

Soil horizons should be described in terms of colour, texture, structure, depth, porosity and organic matter content.

Importance of the knowledge of soil profile in crop production should also be assessed.

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should be based on organic matter (including micro-living organisms), mineral particles, air and water.

The roles of soil living organisms and organic matter should be assessed.

 

Physical properties should include colour, texture, structure, soil air, water, temperature, consistency. Chemical properties e.g. soil reaction (pH).

 

The importance of soil physical and chemical properties to the growth and development of crop plants should also be covered.

 

 

 

 

The methods should include slashing, hoeing, felling, controlled burning, stumping, ridging and mounding.

 

Bulldozing, felling, ploughing, harrowing, use of herbicides and ridging should be assessed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plant nutrients should be classified into macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients.

 

Functions of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and iron in plant growth and development are required.

 

Knowledge of deficiency symptoms associated with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and iron are required.

 

The cycles as natural sources of nitrogen and carbon should be covered.

The knowledge and understanding of nitrogen and carbon cycles are required.

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the concepts of soil fertility and productivity is required.

 

 

Assessment should include adequate nutrients, presence of organic matter, suitable pH, good water holding capacity, good aeration and absence of toxic substances.

 

Methods such as crop rotation, application of fertilizers, cover cropping, liming, mulching and fallowing are required.

 

 

Fertilizers should be classified into organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers. Further classification of inorganic fertilizers into compound, straight or single fertilizers is also required.

 

Knowledge and skills in the preparation of compost using stack/heap and pit methods are required.

 

Knowledge and skills in the application of fertilizer should include broadcasting, row placement or side dressing, band placement and foliar application.

Split application of fertilizers involving top dressing should be assessed.

 

Understanding of factors such as crop factors, soil factors, climatic factors, social factors and management is required.

 

 

 

6.   Soil and water

conservation

(a)   Concepts of soil and water

conservation

 

(b)   Types of soil water and

their importance

 

 

 

 

 

(c)   Soil erosion:

agents and types

 

 

 

(d)   Factors influencing

soil erosion

 

 

 

(e )   Effects of soil

erosion

 

 

(f)   Economic importance of

soil erosion

 

 

 

(g)   Soil and water conservation

methods

 

 

C.   FARM MECHANIZATION

 

1.      Introduction to farm

mechanization

(a) Meaning, objectives and

importance of  farm

mechanization

 

(b) Safety precautions on

the farm

 

 

 

 

2.    Farm power

Sources of farm

power: human, animal,

combustion engines, solar,

wind, water and electricity

 

 

2.      Farm machinery and

implements:

tractor, power tiller,

mistblower, lawn mower,

knapsack sprayer, plough,

harrow, ridger, planter and

trailer

 

 

 

4.   Harvest and post-harvest

tools, equipment and

machinery

 

(a)  Harvesting tool:

e.g. sickle, cutlass and hoe

 

 

 

 

(b)   Harvesting  machinery:

e.g. combine harvester,

cotton picker and           groundnut lifter

 

(c)   Processing   machinery and

equipment:  cassava grater, corn miller and dehusker.

 

(d)   Storage equipment:

e.g. silos, barns, cribs,

refrigerator and deep

freezers.

 

5.   Irrigation and Drainage

(a)   Meaning, merits and  demerits of  irrigation and drainage

 

 

(a)    Classification and methods

of irrigation and drainage systems including their merits and demerits

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.  Surveying and planning

of farmstead

(a)  Purpose of surveying

And measurement

 

 

 

(b)  Surveying instruments

and their uses

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c)  Procedure for conducting

a survey

 

 

 

 

(d)    Map preparation

 

 

 

(e)  Meaning and importance

of farmstead planning

 

(f)   Principles of  planning farmstead outlay

 

 

D.   CROP

PRODUCTION

 

1.   Importance and

classification of crop plants

(a) Benefits derived from

crop plants

 

 

 

 

(b) Classification

of crop plants

 

 

2.   Principles of crop production

(a) Site selection and

preparation

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) Meaning and objectives of   tillage

 

 

 

 

 

(c)   Methods of plant

propagation

 

 

 

(d)   Activities in seed propagation

 

 

 

(e)   Methods of vegetative

propagation

 

 

 

 

(f)  Cultural practices in

crop production

 

 

 

3.   General principles

and practices of plant protection

 

(a)   Classification of crop

diseases

 

 

 

(b)  Diseases of crop plants:

 

 

(i)  Fungal diseases

Damping off, leaf spot of

maize, gummosis

of citrus, sikatoga

of plantain/

banana, black

pod of cocoa

 

(ii)  Bacterial diseases

Bacterial soft rot

of carrots,  cabbage rot,

black soft rot of onion

 

(iii)  Viral diseases

Cassava leaf

mosaic, leaf

curl, groundnut

leaf rosette,

maize streak,

Cape St. Paul

wilt, swollen

shoot

 

(iv)   Nematodes and worms

Rook knot

nematode

disease of

tomato and okro

 

(v)   Non-pathogenic

diseases

Blossom-end rot

of tomato

 

( c) Effects of plant diseases on       crop production.

 

 

(d)   Classification of  crop pests

 

 

 

 

(e)  Methods of pest and

disease control

 

 

 

(f)   Weeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

(g)   Invasive Alien

species (IAS)

 

 

 

 

 

4.   Husbandry of  selected crops:

 

Climatic and soil  requirements, land preparation, seed rate, spacing, time of planting, nursery requirements,  fertilizer application,  weed control, pest and diseases control, harvesting  and storage of at least one crop from each of the following crop  groupings:

 

(a)   Field crops

Maize,

sorghum,

cassava, yam,

cowpea,

groundnut

 

(b)  Vegetable crops

Tomato, okro,

onion, shallot

 

(c)   Fruit crops

Plantain, banana,

pineapple,

mango, citrus

 

(d)   Tree crops

Cocoa, oil palm,

cashew

 

5.   Principles of crop

improvement

(a)   Meaning and

aims of crop

improvement

 

 

(b)  Methods of

crop improvement:

introduction,

selection and

cross-breeding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.   Basic principles of

ornamental plant

production

(a)   Identification,

classification

and importance

of ornamental

plants

 

(b)   Preparation of

beds and borders

 

 

E.    ANIMAL

PRODUCTION

 

1.   Importance, classification

and distribution of breeds

of farm animals in

West Africa

(a)   Importance of farm

animals

 

(b) Classification  of farm

Animals

 

(c ) Characteristics

and distribution

of farm animals in

West Africa

 

2.   Animal nutrition

(a)   Digestive

system of

farm animals

 

(b) Importance

of  food nutrients in

animal production:

carbohydrates, proteins,

fats, minerals, vitamins

and water

 

(c)   Classification

of feedstuffs

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d)   Animal feed preparation

 

 

 

(e)   Types of   animal ration:

balanced,  maintenance    and production rations

 

 

 

(f)   Malnutrition in farm animals

 

(g)   Meaning, types and importance of forage and pasture crops

 

3.   Reproduction in farm animals

 

(a)   Male and female

reproductive systems

 

 

(b ) Oestrus and signs of heat

 

 

(c)  Process of

reproduction

 

 

(d)   Inbreeding:

causes and effects

 

4.   Principles of  animal   improvement

 

(a)   Meaning and aims of animal improvement

 

(b)   Methods of  animal improvement

 

 

 

(c)   Artificial insemination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.   General management

practices in farm

animal production

 

(a)   Meaning and objectives of

Management practices in

animal production

 

 

 

 

 

(b)   Management

systems of keeping farm

animal

 

 

(c)   Selection of breeding

stock

 

 

 

(d)   Processing and marketing

of farm animals

 

 

6.   Principles of animal

health management

 

(a)  Diseases in farm animal

and their causes

(b)   Diseases of farm animal:

 

(i)     Viral:

Foot and mouth,

rinderpest, Newcastle, fowl

pox

(ii)   Bacterial:

Anthrax,  brucellosis,

tuberculosis

(iii)   Fungal:

aspergillosis,  ringworm

(iv)   Protozoan:

trypanosomiasis,

coccidiosis, redwater

 

 

 

 

 

(c)   Pests and parasites of

farm animals

 

(i) Classification of parasites

of farm animals

 

(ii)  Effects of pests and

parasites on their host

 

(iii)  Economic importance

of pests and parasites

 

(d) Prevention and control of

pests and parasites of

farm animals

 

 

7.   Husbandry of selected farm

animals:

selection of breeding stock;

housing; feeding; breeding

programme; routine

management  practices; pests     and diseases, their prevention and control

 

8.       Introduction to fisheries

 

Meaning and

types of fisheries

 

 

 

 

9.   Fish farming

(a)   Meaning of aquaculture

and fish farming

 

(b)   Benefits and problems                 associated with fish

farming

 

 

 

(c)   Facilities for

growing fish

 

 

(d)   Factors that influence

choice of site for a fish

pond

 

 

 

 

(e)   Harvesting,

processing and

preservation of fish

 

 

 

 

 

F.    AGRICULTURAL

ECONOMICS,

AGRIBUSINESS

AND EXTENSION

 

1.   Agricultural  economics:

 

Importance and basic

principles

 

(a)   Meaning and scope of

agricultural economics

 

 

 

 

(b)   The farm as an   economic unit

 

 

 

(c)   Agricultural economics

and farm management

in agribusiness

 

 

(d)   Principles of

demand and supply

 

(e)  Determination of price for  a commodity

 

 

2.   Factors of  production

 

(a)   Land, labour,  capital,

management

 

(b)   Functions of

farm manager

 

(c) The production

function:

The law of

diminishing

returns

 

 

 

 

3.    Introduction to  agribusiness

management

(a)   Meaning and

examples of

agribusiness

 

 

(b) Agribusinesses

and agriculture-

related occupations/

professions

 

 

(c)  Skills/tasks/ activities

performed in agribusiness

management

 

3.      Establishment and

management of agribusiness

 

(a)   Factors to consider in setting up an  agribusiness

 

(b)  Steps in establishing

agribusiness

 

5.   Agricultural financing

 

(a)  Sources of farm credit:

Banks, co-operative

societies, money lenders,

governmental agencies,

marketing boards, thrift

and loan societies

 

 

(b)   Conditions for obtaining

credit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.   Farm records and accounts

 

(a)   Types and  importance of

farm records and accounts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)   Preparation of financial

statements

 

 

7.   Marketing of Agricultural    produce

(a)   Meaning and

importance

 

 

 

(b)   Marketing

functions

 

 

(c)   Marketing channels,

agents and agencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(d)   Problems associated with marketing of agricultural produce

 

 

 

 

8.   Agricultural  extension

 

(a)   Meaning and importance of    agricultural extension

 

(i)   Objectives and importance

 

(ii)  Role of agencies in    extension education

 

 

 

(iii) Characteristics of an effective  extension system

 

 

 

 

(iv)   Problems and issues in

extension education

 

(b)  Extension teaching  methods:

Individual, group and

mass methods

 

9.   The value chain approach in

food quality and safety

assurance

 

(a)  Definition and characteristics of value chain

 

(b)   Benefits of value chain development in agricultural production and marketing

 

(c)   Principles of value chain

approach

 

 

 

(d)   Food quality and

food safety

 

 

 

(e)   Bodies responsible for

food quality and safety

assurance

 

 

(f)   Practices for ensuring food

quality and safety along the

value chain

 

 

 

 

A.  INTRODUCTION

TO  AGRICULTURE

 

1.  Identification and

uses of forest products

and their by-products

 

 

 

2.  Measurement in

Agriculture

 

B.   SOIL USES AND

MANAGEMENT

1.   Rocks

 

 

 

2.   Soil Profile

 

3.   Laboratory work on

physical properties

of the soil:

 

 

(a) Examination of texture

by manual feel (wet or dry

and by sedimentation,

porosity and capillary

experiments

 

(b)  Mechanical analysis by

the use of sieves

 

 

(c)   Determination

of moisture content of a

moist soil sample by  weight

 

(d)   Determination

of porosity and water

holding capacity

 

(e)  Demonstration

of capillary action

 

4.   Laboratory work on chemical     properties of soil:

 

Demonstration of soil acidity

using simpletests e.g. litmus

paper and colour chart

 

5.    Laboratory work to

demonstrate the presence of

living organisms in the soil

 

6.     Ferilizers

(organic and inorganic)

 

 

7.     Simple demonstration

of compost and farm yard

manure preparation

 

 

C.   FARM

MECHANIZATION

 

1.   Farm tools and equipment

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Tractor-drawn  and animal-drawn implements

 

 

 

 

 

3.   Farm tractor

 

 

 

4.   Simple farm machines

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Harvesting and post-

harvest tools, equipment

and machinery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.   Irrigation and

drainage

 

 

 

7.   Elementary surveying     instrument

 

 

 

D.   CROP

PRODUCTION

 

1.   Classification of  crop plants

 

 

2.  Seeds, seedlings, fruits and    storage organs of crops

 

 

 

3.  Main diseases and pests of crops in the field and in storage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.   Plant propagation

(a)   Propagation by seed: time

of planting, seed rates,

plant population and

seed viability tests of

common local crop plants

 

(b)   Vegetative propagation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Seed bed  preparation and

cultural practices

 

 

 

 

 

6.   Ornamental plant  production

 

 

7.   Common weeds

 

 

 

 

8.   Measurement of  crop yields

 

 

E.    ANIMAL

PRODUCTION

 

1.   Common breeds of animals and the types of animals in West Africa

 

2.   Major internal organs of farm

Animals Jamb Result

 

 

3.   Animal products and by-products

 

 

4.  Animal feeds and their sources

 

 

 

 

 

5.   Main pests and  parasites of

farm animals Pounds to Naira

 

 

 

6.   Prevention and control of

diseases of  farm animals

 

 

 

7.   General management practices in farm  animals  production

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.   Slaughtering of animals and

dressing of the carcasses.

 

9.   Stocking and  management

practices in fish farming.

 

 

10.  Fish harvesting  and preservation

 

 

 

 

 

F.   AGRICULTURAL

ECONOMICS AND

EXTENSION

 

Simple calculations on demand

and supply, equilibrium price

determination, production

function, income and expenditure account, balance sheet.

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the concepts of soil and water conservation is required.

 

Knowledge and understanding of gravitational water (non-available water), capillary water, hygroscopic water, available water and superfluous water are required.

Wilting point and field capacity should be covered.

 

Agents such as water, wind, ice should be covered.

Types of erosion caused by water and wind should also be assessed.

 

Factors should include wind, rainfall, topography, vegetation cover, soil type, human and animal activities.

 

 

Effects such as loss of top soil, loss of soil fertility, siltation of dams, reduction in water holding capacity of soils should covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The methods should be assessed under agronomic, soil conditioning and tillage practices.

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledge and understanding of the meaning, objectives and importance of farm mechanization are required.

 

Farm safety measures in the use of machinery, electricity, agro-chemicals, draught animals, sharp tools should be covered.

Dressing codes, first aid and use of first aid box should also be covered.

 

Assessment of sources of farm power should include the use of draught animals and factors that affect the efficiency of draught animals.

 

Uses, merits and demerits of each source of farm power should also be covered.

 

 

Differences between farm machinery and implements should be covered.

Assessment should include use, care and maintenance of farm machinery and implements. Candidates should be able to identify the major parts of farm implements and state their functions.  The major parts of the internal combustion engine and their functions should also be covered.

 

Skills in the operation of simple farm machines should be assessed.

 

 

Assessment should include identification, functions, care and maintenance of tools, equipment and machinery.  The names and functions of the principal parts of each machine should also be covered.

 

Knowledge and ability to operate harvesting, processing and storage equipment should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Differences between irrigation and drainage are required.

Benefits and problems of irrigation and drainage in agriculture should also be covered.

 

Knowledge and understanding of irrigation systems such as surface (e.g. furrow, flooding and drip/trickle); overhead (e.g. sprinkler, use of watering can); and drainage systems (open or surface, subsurface). Merits and demerits of each system should be covered.

Assessment should cover equipment used in irrigation and drainage e.g. watering cans, pipes, sprinklers and pumps.

 

 

 

Importance of surveying in road construction, agriculture, mining and town planning should be covered.

 

 

Assessment should cover identification, uses, care and maintenance of the following instruments: ranging poles, gunters chain, measuring tape, prismatic compass, theodolite, dumpy level, abney level, tripod stand,               global placement system (GPS) and total station (TS).

 

Knowledge and understanding of procedures for conducting reconnaissance and preliminary surveys, as well as linear and angular measurements and recording of data are required.

 

Scale selection, baseline determination and transfer of field measurements onto maps should be covered.

 

Knowledge and understanding of farmstead outlay should cover the influence of factors such as topography, water source, type of soil, direction of wind and sunshine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledge of the benefits of crop plants such as food, animal feed, industrial raw materials, employment, income and foreign exchange is required.

 

 

Classification based on growth cycle/lifespan, botany, uses and methods of cultivation should be covered.

 

 

Factors influencing the selection of a site e.g. topography, water, soil type, vegetation, market; different methods of land preparation (indigenous and mechanized) and their effects on the soil should be covered.

 

 

 

Meaning of tillage; tillage practices (ploughing, harrowing, ridging, mounding); types of tillage (minimum, zero,  primary and secondary); objectives of tillage are required.

Differences between primary and secondary tillage should also be covered.

 

Knowledge and understanding of plant propagation by seeds and vegetative parts as well as their merits and demerits should be covered.

 

Seed propagation activities such as seed selection, testing, treatment and planting methods; planting at stake and nursery practices are required.

 

Propagation involving the use of materials such as corms, suckers, rhizomes, slips, crowns, runners, bulbs, tubers and manipulation of plants as in budding, grafting and layering should be covered.

 

Assessment should cover the description and reasons for carrying out cultural practices in crop production.

 

 

 

 

 

Diseases to be classified into pathogenic diseases (bacterial, viral, fungal, and nematodes diseases); and non-pathogenic diseases (caused by excess or low nutrient levels, temperature, water etc.)

 

 

 

 

Assessment of the understanding of the diseases should be done under the following headings:

–   causal agent;

–   mode of transmission;

–   affected crop(s);

–   symptoms;

–   prevention and control measures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should cover knowledge and understanding of the effects of diseases on crop production.

 

Classification of crop pests should include rodents, insects, birds and nematodes.

Classification of pests into field and storage pests as well as the classification of insect

 

Control methods should include physical, chemical, biological, cultural, prohibition/quarantine, integrated pest management and use of resistant varieties.

 

Assessment should cover classification, importance, mode of dispersal and methods of weed control.

Ability to calibrate knapsack sprayer for purposes of chemical control of weeds is required.

 

Definition, identification and description of common features of invasive alien species.

Effects of invasive alien species on agriculture. Ways to prevent and control invasive alien species are required.

 

 

 

 

Assessment should be based on the knowledge and ability to measure yield of harvested crops in terms of weight, crates and bags per unit area of land.

Knowledge and skills in post-harvest handling of produce to minimize losses as well as cost-benefit analysis of projects should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aims such as production of disease/pest resistant varieties, to increase yield, to improve quality of produce, to reduce maturity period should be covered.

 

Knowledge and understanding of the methods are required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should be based on identification, importance and classification of various types of ornamental plants according to their uses e.g. bedding plants, hedging plants, borders, trees, shrubs, climbing plants and lawns plants.

 

Differences between bed and borders; and principles to be observed when planting beds and borders should also be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Importance of farm animals should include food, traction, power, transport, research, supply of manure, feed, medicine, sports and pleasure.

Animals should be classified as:

Ruminants:  e.g. sheep, goat, cattle

Non-ruminants:  e.g. pigs, poultry

Non-ruminant herbivores:  e.g. rabbits, horses, grasscutters

 

 

Identification of the major breeds of farm animals, their characteristics and distribution in West Africa as well as factors affecting the distribution of farm animals should be covered.

 

Knowledge and understanding of the digestive system and the process of digestion in ruminant and non-ruminant farm animals are required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification should be based on the major nutrient groups.

Importance of roughage in feedstuff should be covered.

 

 

 

 

Knowledge and skills in the preparation of the following   forms of animal feed: concentrates, silage, hay, fresh herbage are required.

 

Appropriate rations for animals at each stage of growth should be covered. E.g. starter, maintenance, grower rations. Ration formulation should be assessed.

 

 

Effects of malnutrition on animal production are also required.

 

Identification of some common forage and pasture crops and their importance should be covered.

 

 

 

The names and functions of the major parts of the male and female reproductive systems of farm animals should be assessed.

 

Knowledge and understanding of oestrus, signs of heat and its importance are required.

 

Assessment should cover mating, fertilization, gestation and parturition as well as functions of hormones involved in reproduction.

 

Ways of preventing inbreeding should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should cover methods such as introduction, selection and breeding.

Advantages and disadvantages of each method are also required.

 

Procedures such as semen collection, dilution, storage and insemination are required.

Advantages and disadvantages of artificial insemination should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment should be based on knowledge and understanding of suitable environmental factors in animal housing e.g. ventilation, space and weather conditions; appropriate feedstuffs and feed preparation; creep feeding, weaning, debeaking, dehorning, disbudding, castration, fostering of young animals and record keeping.

 

Explanation of extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems is required.  Advantages and disadvantages of each system should be assessed.

 

Assessment should be based on factors considered in selecting breeding stock e.g. performance records, appearance and state of animal.

 

Knowledge and skills in slaughtering and dressing of farm animals should be covered.

Marketing whole animals or in cut-up parts of the carcass is required.

 

 

 

Causes of diseases should include bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa.  The role of injuries, poisons, hereditary conditions and nutritional deficiencies should be covered.

Assessment of the knowledge and understanding of the diseases should be under the following headings:

causal organisms; mode of transmission; animals affected; symptoms; effects on animals; prevention and control measures.

The role of vectors in disease transmission should also be covered

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Classification of parasites into ecto-parasites and endo-parasites is required.

 

Assessment would include structure of tapeworm, liver fluke, roundworm, louse and mite.  Effects of these parasites on their host should be assessed.

 

 

Methods including sanitary practices, isolation, prohibition, quarantine, routine vaccination, good nutrition, use of drugs and recommended chemicals should be covered.

 

Assessment of the husbandry practices of at least one animal from each of the following groups is required:

Ruminants:  cattle, sheep and goats

Non-ruminants:  poultry and pigs

Non-ruminant herbivores:  grasscutters, guinea pigs and rabbits

 

 

Description of the various types of fisheries:

–   Culture fisheries (aquaculture/fish farming)

–   Capture fisheries (subsistence, commercial,

artisanal, industrial fisheries)

Comparison of subsistence and commercial fisheries as well as comparison of artisanal and industrial fisheries are all required.

 

 

Knowledge of the differences between aquaculture and fish farming is required.

 

Assessment should cover benefits and problems of fish farming.

Possible solutions to problems associated with fish farming should also be covered.

 

 

Knowledge of the uses of earthen ponds, cages, concrete tanks, raceways and fish pens in growing fish is required.

 

Factors to be considered including soil type, slope of land and availability of water; and  management practices such as pond stocking, feeding of fish, water quality maintenance, pond maintenance and production control are required.

 

Signs of maturity and methods used in harvesting fish are required.

Methods of processing fish including washing, scaling, gutting and filleting as well as methods of preserving fish should such as smoking, cooking, salting, drying, frying, freezing and canning should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledge of the scope of agricultural economics: basic economic principles, factors of production, keeping records and accounts, agricultural financing and marketing of agricultural produce are required.

 

Economic properties of the farm:

input – output property, market orientation, income, employment generation properties etc. should be covered.

 

Assessment should cover knowledge of the application of economic principles in the management of agribusiness and policy formulation.

 

Factors influencing demand and supply should be assessed.

 

Effects of shifts in the demand and supply curves on equilibrium price are required.

 

 

 

Assessment should cover the characteristics of land and factors that determine the supply of land;  the sources of agricultural labour and factors that determine the supply and efficiency of labour; the types of agricultural capital and the role of capital.

 

Determination of how the various factors could be combined for maximization of profits and the law of diminishing marginal returns should be covered.

The drawing and interpretation of the production function curve; total product curve; average product curve and the marginal product curve are required.

 

 

 

Examples of agribusiness such as crop and animal production, fisheries, agroforestry, agroprocessing and specialized services in agriculture should be covered.

 

On-farm businesses such as tractor operation, cattle range management and bee-keeping as well as off-farm businesses such as agricultural extension, quarantine and pineapple export are required.

 

Planning, organizing, budgeting, record keeping, supervising, coordinating should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment will include availability of capital, tools/equipment, material/input and market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Types of credit e.g. short, medium and long term credits should be assessed.

Knowledge of subsidies as a form of agricultural financing is required.

 

 

 

 

Conditions such as collateral security, surety, personal reputation and personal investment should be covered.

 

Knowledge and skill of preparing a business plan are required.

 

Merits and demerit of the credit sources are also required.

 

 

 

Differences between farm records and accounts will be assessed.

 

Types of farm records including physical records (maps, weather chart), inventory records, financial records, production and labour records should be covered.

 

The types of farm accounts should cover asset and liability accounts, receipts and expenditure accounts, capital and credit accounts.

 

Skills in preparing income and expenditure account, profit and loss account and balance sheet is required.

 

 

 

Difference(s) between marketing and markets will be assessed.

Knowledge of the importance of marketing is required.

 

Assembling, processing, grading, sorting, storage, transportation, advertising and distribution etc should be covered.

 

The role of marketing agents such as producers, middlemen, consumers, country buyers, wholesalers, retailers and brokers are required.

Functions of marketing agencies such as marketing boards and co-operatives are also required.

Merits and demerits of various agents and agencies should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The roles of agencies such as the universities, research institutions, ministry responsible for agriculture, non-governmental organizations in extension education should be covered

 

Characteristics such as the establishment of a strong administrative support, provision of adequate financial support, good transportation, staff motivation and effective monitoring and evaluation should be covered.

 

 

 

 

Advantages and disadvantages of each extension teaching method are required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How value chain influences the competitiveness and success of selected industries should be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Knowledge and understanding of the importance of standards in food quality and safety assurance in domestic, regional and international markets are required.

 

Key players in food quality and safety assurance (private and public sectors) should be covered e.g. EPA, Food and Drugs Authority and GSA.

 

 

Food safety practices by private, national and international or global standards along the value chain are required.

Local and international bodies responsible for food quality and safety assurance e.g. GSA, EPA, ISO should be covered.

 

 

 

Identification and uses of forest products and by-products such as sawn timber, plywood, medicinal plants, snails, animal skins and ivory should be assessed.

 

 

Identification and uses of indigenous measuring devices are required.

 

 

 

Identification of the common rock types: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic should be covered.

 

Identification and simple description of soil profile are required.

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment will be based on skills to perform experiments to determine physical properties of soil.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessment will be based on the skills to perform experiments to determine chemical properties of soil.

 

 

 

 

Identification of fertilizers, methods of application and calculations of rates of application are required.

 

Both heap and pit methods are required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Identification, description, uses and maintenance of various farm tools and equipment including  the following: hoe, cutlass, garden trowel, hand fork, shovel, spade, rake, sickle, secateurs, shears, long- handled hoe, pruning knife and budding knife shoul be covered.

 

Identification, description and uses of tractor and animal-drawn implements such as ploughs, harrows, ridgers, planters and cultivators as well as identification of the major parts of the implements and their functions, care and maintenance are required.

 

Identification and functions of the major components of the tractor; its operation, servicing and maintenance are required.

 

Identification, operation, care and maintenance of simple farm machines, e.g. mistblower, knapsack sprayer, mower and power tiller are required.

Skill to calibrate the knapsack sprayer will also be assessed.

 

Identification and use of harvesting and post- harvest tools and equipment e.g. sickle, cutlass, groundnut lifter, hoe and mattock are required.

Identification, operation, care and maintenance of harvesting and processing machinery such as combine harvester, cassava grater, corn miller, corn sheller and groundnut decorticator should be covered.

 

 

Identification, operation, care and maintenance of simple irrigation and drainage equipment such as watering can, sprinkler head and tiles will be assessed.

 

Identification, uses and care of simple surveying instruments eg. measuring tape, ranging poles, compass, gunters chain, pegs, theodolite, dumpy level and abney level are required.

 

 

 

 

Classification based on growth cycle/life span, botany and uses should be covered.

 

Identification of seeds, seedlings, fruits, storage organs and essential parts of the common crop plants, pasture grasses, legumes and local weeds is required.

 

Identification of main pests and their damage to crops e.g. cotton stainer, weevils of grains and groundnuts, beetles are required.

 

Recognition of main diseases of crops and the causal agents, where feasible with characteristic symptoms e.g. smut of cereals, maize streak, swollen shoot of cocoa, mosaic of cassava,

rosette of groundnut, leaf spot of groundnut, blast of rice, brown rot of pineapple, black pod of cocoa, root knot disease, blossom-end-rot of tomato, damping off disease and sigatoka of plantain/banana should all be covered.

 

 

Activities involved in propagation by seed:  seed selection and testing, seed treatment, seed sowing, nursery practices are required.

 

 

 

Skill to identify vegetative structures e.g. corms, rhizomes, suckers, slips and runners should be assessed.

 

Knowledge and skills in vegetative propagation through cutting, grafting, budding and layering are required.

 

Knowledge and skills in the preparation of seed beds, fertilizer application, mulching, pesticides application, watering, pruning, staking and thinning are required.

Calculation involving plant density/population is required.

 

Identification and classification of ornamental plants should be covered.

 

Identification of common weeds and preparation of weed album; knowledge of external features; mode of dispersal; various methods of weed control on the farm are required.

 

Skill to measure crop yield is required.

 

 

 

 

 

Identification of breeds and types of farm animals is required.

 

 

Identification and function of the major parts of the digestive and reproductive systems are required.

 

Identification and uses of animal products  and by-products e.g. hides, skins, furs, feathers and horns should be covered.

 

Identification and the uses of animal feed and animal feedstuffs, types of feedstuffs and feed ingredients e.g. fish meal, cakes, rice bran, blood meal, bone meal, wheat bran, oyster shell and salt are required.

 

Identification of main ectoparasites e.g. ticks, lice, and endoparasites e.g. tape worms and round worms as well as damages caused to their hosts and their control are required.

 

Methods of prevention and control of diseases of farm animals e.g. use of drugs, drenching, dipping, spraying, simple methods of farm sanitation will also be assessed.

 

Selection of  breeding stock, management systems, care of animals, selection of eggs for hatching, egg collection and grading, milking of animals, skin branding, debeaking, dehorning and castration should be covered.

 

Equipment used in common management practices in farm animal production e.g. burdizzo, elastrator, drenching gun, dehorner and debeaker should be assessed.

 

Processes involved in the slaughtering and dressing are required.

 

Identification of common species of fish should be covered.  Skills in stocking and managing fish ponds should be assessed.

 

Skills in processing and preservation of fish are required.

 

Identification of equipment fo r harvesting and preservation of fish is required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preparation of the profit and loss account and the balance sheet from a given data is required.

 

Skills in the drawing and interpretation of production function curves are also required.

 

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Edidiong Ekpo

Edidiong Ekpo is a seasoned writer, journalist, and public speaker. He has gotten over 8 years of working experience as a freelancer online on several platforms as a writer, editor, and SEO expert. You can contact me for business via edidiongwriter@gmail.com.

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