Nigeria is rich in solid minerals. This have attracted many foreign nationals. These solid minerals drive the economic sector of Nigeria. In this article, I will share with you the list of solid minerals in Nigeria and their states of location. I will also discuss the major solid minerals.
1) Abia: salt, oil/gas, limestone, zinc, lead, zinc
2) Abuja: Cassiterite, dolomite, clay, gold, lead, zinc, tantalite and marble.
3) Adamawa: Magnesite and kaolin, gypsum and bentonite.
4) Akwa Ibom: Limestone, oil and gas, salt and uranium, clay, clay, lead, zinc, lignite.
5) Anambra: Phosphate, oil and gas, salt, clay, glass, sand, gypsum, lead, iron ore, limestone, lignite.
6) Bauchi: Gold, gypsum, wolfram, coal, limestone, lignite, iron ore and clay, cassiterite (tin ore), columbite.
7) Bayelsa: Gypsum, clay, lead and zinc, lignite, limestone, oil and gas, uranium and magnesium.
8) Benue: Marble and salt, limestone, lead and zinc, iron ore, gypsum, barite, clay, coal and gemstone.
9) Borno: Clay, bentonite, diatomite, gypsum, hydrocarbon, kaolin and limestone.
10) Delta: Gypsum, clay, glass, oil and gas, marble, kaolin, lignite and iron ore.
11) Ebonyi: Zinc and salt, lead and gold.
12) Edo: Marble, oil and gas, limestone, lignite, gold, gypsum and iron ore.
13) Ekiti: Granite, feldspar, kaolin, syenite and tatium.
14) Enugu: Coal, lead, zinc and limestone.
15) Gombe: Gypsum and gemstone.
16) Imo: Salt and phosphate, gypsum, lead and zinc, lignite, limestone, marcasite.
17) Cross River: Lead and zinc, barite, lignite, limestone, uranium, oil and gas manganese.
18) Jigawa: Butyl.
19) Kaduna: Amethyst, clay,felspar, gemstone, gold, graphite, kaolin, hyanite, mica, rock crystal, ruby,sapphire, tentalime, topaz and tourmaline and asbestos.
20) Kano: Tantalite, lead, zinc, glass sand, gemstone, copper and gassiterite.
21) Kastina: Marble, salt and kaolin.
22) Kebbi: Gold.
23) Kogi:Dolomite, Cole, felspar, gypsum, iron ore,gold, felspar, columbite and cassiterite.
24) Kwara: Tantalite, mica, marble, iron ore, gold, feldspar, columbite and cassiterite.
25) Lagos: Bitumen, oil and gas, clay and glass.
26) Nassarawa: Quartz, quartz, tourmaline, tantalite, talc, sapphire, salt, mica, limestone, iron ore, galena, marble and feldspar.
27) Niger: Zinc and lead, gold and talc.
28) Ogun: Phosphate and limestone, kaolin, gemstone, feldspar, clay and bitumen.
29) Ondo: Oil and gas, limestone, kaolin, gypsum, granite, glass, sand,feldspar, dimension stones, coal, clay and bitumen.
30) Osun: Tourmaline and tantalite, granite, gold and columbite.
31) Oyo: Tantalite and talc, silimonite, marble, kaolin, gold, gemstone, dolomite, clay, cassiterite and aquamarine.
32) Plateau: Wolfram and tin, tantalite and columbite, salt, molybdenum, marble, zinc and lead, kaolin, iron ore, granite, gemstone, fluoride, emerald, coal, clay, cassiterite, bismuth, bismuth, bauxite and barite.
33) Rivers: Glass sand, clay, lignite, marble and oil and gas.
34) Sokoto: Salt and silica, sand, potash, phosphate, limestone, laterite, kaolin, gypsum, granite, gold, flakes and clay.
35) Taraba: Kaolin, zinc and lead.
36) Yobe: Soda Ash
37) Zamfara: Cotton, gold and coal.
Now you have seen the list of solid minerals in Nigeria and their states of location. Now I will discuss the major solid minerals starting with coal. Coal was first discovered in 1909 in the South Eastern state of Enugu in Nigeria and it’s exploration began at Ogbete Mine in 1916. This coal of Nigeria happens to be among the best coal in the globe because of it’s low sulphur and ash content which resulted in an ecofriendly coal.
Feasibility studies confirmed that Nigeria has about 3 billion tonnes of coal reserves in 17 identified coal fields. However only more than 6 million tonnes of proven reserves are available.
The solid minerals is useful as a source of energy even though it is not very common in Nigeria due to the use of diesel and gas. Globally speaking, nations like the United Kingdom and Italy are interested in it.
However majority of the mines have been abandoned and the Nigerian government is making plans to bring it back using privatisation. Benue, Enugu, Ondo, Nasarrawa, Plateau and Zamfara are the states of coal discovery in Nigeria.
Iron ore is another solid mineral in Nigeria and it’s largest deposit is in Itakpe in Kogi State. Apart from Kogi, they also present in Enugu, Niger State including the Federal Capital Territory.
Nigeria is said to have up to 3 billion metric tonnes of iron ore. The Nigerian organization for iron ore which is the National Iron Ore Mining Company was established in 1979 so as to explore and make provisions of iron ore to Ajaokuta Steel Company in Ajaokuta. They also supply iron ore to the Delta Steel Company in Aladja. This organization cannot be said to have fulfilled it’s mission and the two steel companies are not functioning.
Gypsum is another mineral and it’s use cannot be overstressed. They make use of it in the Plaster of Paris and the production of cement including the classroom chalk. More than 1 billion tonnes of gypsum deposits are found across many states in Nigeria. They include Anambra, Adamawa, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Borneo, Benue, Edo, Delta, Gombe, Kogi, IMO, Sokoto and Ondo.
Gold is another mineral in Nigeria and they are not exploited in large scale. Gold exploration is not very dominant and this can only be found in places like Zamfara, Sokoto, Oyo, Niger, Kwara, Kebbi, Abuja, Bauchi, Ebonyi, Edo and Kaduna.
Talc is another mineral and they are found in places like Kogi, Niger, Osun and Kaduna State. Studies confirm that the current deposit of talc is estimated at about 40 million tonnes. It is observed that the only talc plant in the country is the Raw Material Research and Development Council (RMRDC)’s plant of 3000 tonnes per annum in Nigeria.
Lead/Zinc, another Nigerian mineral estimated at 10 million tonnes of reserves in Nigeria. They are found across Abuja, Abia, Anambra, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Enugu, Ebonyi, Plateau and Taraba, Kano and Niger. Certain proven reserves in three prospects in the east central area are estimated at 5 million times awaiting investors to begin benefiting.
Barite and Bentonite are main components of the mud that is used in the drilling of all forms of oil wells. However more than 700 million tonnes of Bentonite are found across Borneo, Plateau and Adamawa State.
More than 7.5 million tonnes of barite have been discovered in Bauchi and Taraba streg
Gemstones is another important mineral in Nigeria that are found and exploited in Bauchi, Kaduna and Plateau. Sapphire, aquamarine, emerald, tourmaline, topaz, garnet, zircon and feldspar are among gemstones in these areas and they are regarded as the best in the world.
Kaolin has up 3 billion tonnes of reserves in Nigeria and they are found in regions like Borno, Adamawa, Delta, Ekiti, Kastina, Kaduna, Sokoto, Plateau, Ondo and Ogun.
Rock salt is used in making table salt, caustic soda, chlorine, sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The annual demand for these items had passed 1 million tonnes. However there are indications that about 1.5 million tonnes of rock salt is present in Nigeria.
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