In this post, we review the cost of building a 2 bedroom flat in Nigeria. The dream of every Nigerian, the male gender specifically, is to own his place of abode. This piece gives an insight into what is the likely cost of building a modest 2 bedroom flat in the country.
The cost of building structures in Nigeria differs by location as a result of the living index in each States. For this content, Lagos is the focused location, because cost adjustments can be made based on the price(s) of materials and labour at other parts of the country.
Steps to build a 2-bedroom flat in Nigeria:
- Substructure: this involves site clearance, trench excavation and related works to the foundation of the building. The substructure terminates at the concrete slab (this is what is popularly called the German floor).
- Superstructure erection: the erection of the structure walls from the concrete slab (German floor) to the roofing level of the building.
- Roofing: the roof is divided into two parts; these are the roof structure (the skeleton/frame of the roof) and the roof covering.
- Services: these are the building services grouped into 2; electrical installations like sockets, lightings, power boxes, alternative power supply, electrical fans, electrical cookers and boilers, etc. and mechanical services like air conditioning, heating systems, plumbing works, bathtubs, toilet cisterns, etc.
- Finishes: this is the finishing works of the projects like- rendering (plastering), tiling, painting, ceilings, POPs, skirting, etc.
The analysis and breakdown of costs of a modest 2-bedroom flat in the country
From inception, the design has to be simple with cost prudence in view, because a sophisticated design can result in an unnecessarily expensive structure. More so, wastage should be at the barest possible means, and this is possible through the contractors, the labourers, the suppliers having an understanding of cost efficiency for the proposed work.
A simple design will have the following breakdown of floor area:
2 bedrooms of 10m2 to make a bedroom area of 20m2
3 toilets (visitors’ toilet, inclusive) of 5m2 each to make an area of 15m2
A living room of 20m2
A dining section of 10m2
A kitchen of 8m2
A store of 2m2
2 Terraces of 10m2 each totalling to 20m2
The total floor area of the building is 95m2
The essential inputs to the cost of a 2-bedroom flat in Nigeria
The land is the most crucial factor here, as houses are built on lands alone. The cost of land in Lagos is relative, going for a modest figure, a 2 bedroom flat can be erected on a half plot of land adequately, the standard size for half a plot of land is (9m x 18m). As of 2018, the cost of half a plot of land in places like Ikeja, Yaba, Surulere was as high as #10M – #15M, and it could be reduced by 40% of this, in areas like Ijaiye, Meiran, Abule-Egba as half a plot could go at rates such as #5M-#8M.
A significant miscellaneous fee to add is the issues of land grabbers and societal settlements; this is a vice, which, unfortunately, has come to stay in the society and more often than not, the professionals in the construction industry encounter them. The likely figure of this (societal settlements) is relative, but it is proportional to the size of land purchased and the magnitude of construction undertaken. This miscellaneous fee comes up during the land purchase, foundation construction, beams (lintels) and columns (pillars) erection, and finally during the roofing for a bungalow. More cost is likely to be paid for a storey building, from the inception to the completion of the project.
2. Materials Breakdown for the cost of building a 2-bedroom flat
To every construction project, based on experience, it has shown that at least 30% of the total cost goes to material purchase; this value is dependent on the technicality of the projects.
For the cost of building a mini-flat in Nigeria, material break down will be according to work break down structure, i.e., according to the different sections (substructure, superstructure, roofing, services, and finishing) of work involved in the project.
3. Substructure (Foundation)
For the substructure of the projects, the following are the materials:
50 bags of cement at #2,600/bag for concrete slab & ancillaries #130,000
500 blocks at #170 per block #85,000
50 tonnes of laterite for filling the foundation to concrete slab #50,000
50 tonnes of sand for mortar, concrete slab and blinding #150,000
50 tonnes of granite for concrete works and ancillaries #350,000
Wire mesh (a form of reinforcement for the concrete slab) #50,000
Damp proof membrane (polythene sheets) #30,000
Water (depending on the means for pumping/delivery) #10,000 – #50,000
Wood for form-work (this is reusable for the superstructure) #70,000
Labour & related (n.b. there is a concrete slab) #700,000
Total #1,665,000 carried down
- the damp proof membrane is to prevent upward movement of water through the walls
4. Superstructure (Walls)
From the top of the concrete slab (German floor) to the last course of the wall before the roof, is called the superstructure of the building
The following is a breakdown of the necessary materials and the cost of each
40 bags of cement at 2,600 #104,000
1700 blocks each costing #170 #289,000
40 tonnes of sand for mortar, concrete slab and associated works #120,000
10 tonnes of granite for concrete works and ancillaries #70,000
Wood (n.b. reusable from substructure) #######
Water (depending on the means for pumping/delivery) #10,000 – #50,000
Labour & ancillaries #500,000
Total for the superstructure #1,133,000 carried down
For the roofing, it is best we use a figure based on previous similar works done, the cost of roofs is proportional to the complexity of the roof design.
A building can have a simple design and a complex roof, this should be avoided by all possible means in order to have a modest structure at an appropriate cost.
The materials for constructing a roof includes the following:
- Woods: 2×2, 2×12, 1×2 etc,
- Aluminium roofing sheets
- Fascia/Barge Boards
- Roof covers
- And labour expertise is also required from skilled artisans
For a simple roof with modest design, a sum of One million, five hundred thousand naira (# 1,500,000) can adequately cater for this.
The services of the structure like the plumbing works, electrical works, the heating and ventilating systems like the AC and the heaters, and other associated services. This part of the structure costs quite a lot and are an essential component of any building construction. It works with a sum of five hundred thousand naira only (#500,000).
It could go as high as one million naira, depending on the needs of the client, as earlier stated and working with modest figures, #500,0000 should well do to cater to it.
It is the finishing works of the building. Materials used for finishing are known as finishes. Examples of finishing works are the following: painting, tiling, screeding, POP ceilings, ceilings, rendering (plastering), skirting, etc. Finishing works add aesthetics to structures and consume a good portion of the project cost.
A structure is incomplete without the finishing parts of the project carried out. This work section is entirely on the high side of project cost, the finishing of an apartment involves:
- Rendering the house
- Fixing of the window and door panels and supports
- Installing the ceiling
- Tiling the apartment
- Painting the structure, internally and externally
- Tiling the whole house or necessary parts of the house
- Skirting the apartment with tiles or woods
- and other ancillary works
For the finishing aspects of the works, it is advisable to use an estimated sum of #1,000,000 for adequate and excellent services.
Breakdown Cost of building a 2 bedroom flat in Nigeria
Land (optional) #########
Societal settlements (Lagosian only) #200,000
For our proposed project sample, the likely cost is #5,998,000 and this sufficiently adequate to cater for the complete construction of a 2 bedroom flat in Nigeria. The cost could also be cheaper due to location price variance and improvisation could come in handy.
For cost optimisation, it is advisable, to carry out market research of materials, labour cost, etc. and also get to know the construction industry. Further, construction is best done during the dry season as it enables faster works and quicker delivery of materials to the site (this can help reduce the costs of delivery to the site).
What do you do when you have other types of structure to build, and you need the cost data?
The best professional to give you the likely cost of a proposed building project is the Quantity Surveyor. He/she is the construction professional adequately trained for cost-related inputs for proposed building/engineering projects. The Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors has her list of registered professional members here.
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