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List of Solid Minerals in Nigeria and Where to Find Them

Nigeria is a country blessed with a variety of natural resources ranging from gem stones to our high income generating crude oil. It is a country blessed with a good soil with about 30% of Nigerians employed in agriculture as at 2010.

Agriculture itself used to be the major foreign exchange earner of Nigeria before the discovery of crude oil. Even as at now, rubber, an agricultural product, still stands as the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner.

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound with an ordered atomic arrangement and known chemical formula. It is usually formed from abiogenic processes (i.e. not resulting from the activity of living organisms).

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It is worthy to note that biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA): “Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced entirely by biological processes without a geological component (e.g. urinary calculi, oxalate crystals in plant tissues, shells of marine molluscs, etc.) are not regarded as mineral.

List of Solid Minerals in Nigeria and Where to Find Them
Natural Resources in Nigeria – Photo Source: http://nasafocus.com

However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound then the product can be accepted as a mineral.

A solid mineral is a mineral that exist in the solid form. Rocks are not equivalent to minerals. A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

Some rocks, such as limestone or quartzite, are composed primarily of one mineral – calcite or aragonite in the case of limestone, and quartz in the latter case.

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Let’s now take a look at the list of solid minerals in Nigeria and where to find them

Solid Minerals in Nigerian and Location

Abia state

  • Gold.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Salt.
  • Limestone.

Adamawa state

  • Kaolin.
  • Magnetite.
  • Bentonite.
  • Gypsum.

Akwa Ibom state

  • Limestone.
  • Uranium.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Clay.
  • Salt.
  • Lignite.

Anambra state

  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Clay.
  • Salt.
  • Glass-Sand.
  • Limestone.
  • Gypsum.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Lignite.
  • Phosphate.

Bauchi state

  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Clay.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Coal.
  • Limestone.
  • Columbite.
  • Gold.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Gypsum.

Bayelsa state

  • Manganese.
  • Limestone.
  • Lignite.
  • Clay.
  • Gypsum.
  • Uranium.
  • Lead/Zinc.

Benue state

  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Limestone.
  • Marble.
  • Clay.
  • Baryte.
  • GemStone.
  • Salt.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Coal.
  • Gypsum.

Borno state

  • Diatomite.
  • Kaolin.
  • Gypsum.
  • Clay.
  • Limestone.
  • Bentonite.

Cross River state

  • Lignite.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Salt.
  • Limestone.
  • Uranium.
  • Manganese.

Delta state

  • Marble.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Glass-Sand.
  • Gypsum.
  • Lignite.
  • Kaolin.

Ebonyi state

  • Salt.
  • Lead.
  • Gold.

Edo state

  • Marble.
  • Gypsum.
  • Gold.
  • Dolomite Phosphate.
  • Bitumen.
  • Glass-Sand.
  • Lignite.
  • Clay.
  • Limestone.
  • Iron-Ore.

Ekiti state

  • Granite.
  • Kaolin.
  • Feldspar.
  • Syenite.

Enugu state

  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Coal.
  • Limestone.

Gombe state.

  • Gemstone.
  • Gypsum.

Imo state

  • Phosphate.
  • Marcasite.
  • Lignite.
  • Gypsum.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Limestone.
  • Salt.

Jigawa state

  • Butytes.

Kaduna state

  • Sapphire.
  • Kaolin.
  • Gold.
  • Clay.
  • Asbestos.
  • Amethyst.
  • Kyanite.
  • Mica.
  • Topaz.
  • Graphite.
  • Ruby.
  • Tourmaline.
  • Gemstone.
  • Tentalite.

Kano state

  • Cassiterite.
  • Gemstone.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Copper.
  • Glass-Sand.
  • Tantalite.

Katsina state

  • Kaolin.
  • Salt.
  • Marble.

Kebbi state

  • Gold.

Kogi state

  • Coal.
  • Marble.
  • Dolomite.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Kaolin.
  • Gypsum.
  • Feldspar.
  • Talc.
  • Tantalite.

Kwara state

  • Gold.
  • Marble.
  • Tantalite.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Columbite.
  • Feldspar.
  • Mica.

Lagos state

  • Glass-Sand.
  • Clay.
  • Bitumen.

Nasarawa state

  • Beryl.
  • Dolomite
  • Marble.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Tantalite.
  • Columbite.
  • Sapphire.
  • Tourmaline.
  • Quartz.
  • Barytes.
  • Mica.
  • Galena.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Talc.
  • Clay.
  • Salt.

Niger state

  • Gold.
  • Lead/Zinc.
  • Talc.

Ogun state

  • Kaolin.
  • Limestone.
  • Gemstone.
  • Phosphate.
  • Clay.
  • Feldspar.
  • Bitumen.

Ondo state

  • Bitumen.
  • Feldspar.
  • Granite.
  • Kaolin.
  • Limestone.
  • Gemstone.
  • Gypsum.
  • Clay.
  • Glass-Sand.
  • Coal.

Osun state

  • Gold.
  • Granite.
  • Talc.
  • Tourmaline.
  • Columbite.

Oyo state

  • Kaolin.
  • Marble.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Clay.
  • Dolomite.
  • Gemstone.
  • Talc.
  • Gold.
  • Tantalite.

Plateau state

  • Emerald.
  • Tin.
  • Marble.
  • Coal.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Tantalite
  • Columbite.
  • Lead
  • Zinc.
  • Granite.
  • Belonite.
  • Iron-Ore.
  • Kaolin.
  • Clay.
  • Barytes.
  • Molybdenite.
  • Wolfam.
  • Salt.
  • Fluorite.
  • Gemstone.
  • Bauxite.

River state

  • Glass-Sand.
  • Crude Oil.
  • Clay.
  • Marble.
  • Lignite.

Sokoto state

  • Kaolin.
  • Gold.
  • Limestone.
  • Laterrite.
  • Potash.
  • Flakes.
  • Granite.
  • Phosphate.
  • Gypsum.
  • Silica-Sand.
  • Clay.
  • Gold.
  • Salt.

Taraba state

  • Kaolin.
  • Lead/Zinc.

Yobe state

  • Tintomite.
  • Soda Ash.

Zamfara state

  • Coal.
  • Gold.

Federal Capital Territory– Abuja

  • Tantalite.
  • Cassiterite.
  • Dolomite.
  • Gold.
  • Marble.
  • Clay.
  • Lead/Zinc.

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a brittle metal with a silvery white colour when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge.

It is used in a number of very different applications. The majority is consumed in bismuth alloys and in pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The remainder is used in ceramics, paints, catalysts and a variety of minor applications.

Bismuth metal is relatively inert and non – toxic. It has replaced toxic lead in many applications such as plumbing, bullets, birdshot, metal alloys and soldering. Bismuth compounds are used in stomach-upset medicines, treatment of stomach ulcers, soothing creams and cosmetics.

Bitumen

Bitumen is a dense, highly viscous, petroleum – based hydrocarbon that is found in deposits such as oil sands, or obtained as a residue in the distillation of crude oil. It is principally used in road construction.

Cassiterite

Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2 and the main ore of tin. It is generally opaque, but is translucent in thin crystals. Its luster and multiple crystal faces produce a desirable gem.

Clay

There are many different clay minerals that are used for industrial applications. Clays are used in the manufacturing of paper, refractories, rubber, ball clay, dinnerware and pottery, floor and wall tile, sanitary wear, fire clay, fire bricks, foundry sands, drilling mud, iron -ore pelletizing, absorbent and filtering materials and cosmetics.

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Coal

Coal is combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. Coal is basically used in the generation of electricity, steel production and cement manufacturing as a liquid fuel.

Columbite

Columbite is a black mineral group that is an ore of niobium. It has a submetallic luster and a high density and is a niobate of iron and manganese. It forms a series with the tantalum-dominant analogue ferrotantalite and one with the manganese-dominant analogue manganocolumbite.

Niobium is used in alloys for improved strength. It has also shown superconductive properties and is being studied with other metals for a possible breakthrough alloy.

Copper

Copper is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. It is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color.

Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement.

Diatomite

This is a rock composed of the skeletons of diatoms, single -celled organisms with skeleton made of silica which are found in fresh or salt water. Diatomite is primarily used for filtration of drinks such as juices and wines but it is also being used as filter in paints, pharmaceuticals and environmental clean – up technologies.

Feldspar

Feldspar is a rock- forming mineral. It is used in glass and ceramic industries, pottery, porcelain and enamelware, soaps, bond for abrasive wheels, cement, glues, fertilizer and tarred roofing materials and as a sizing or filler in textiles and paper applications.

Fluorite

Fluorite is the mineral form of calcium fluoride CaF2, it is used in the production of hydrofluoric acid, which is employed in the pottery, ceramics, optical, electroplating and plastics industries.

It is also used in the metallurgical treatment of bauxite, as a flux in open – hearth steel furnaces and in metal smelting as well as in carbon electrodes, emery wheels, electric arc welders and toothpaste as a source of fluorine.

Iron Ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite or siderite.

Lead

Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy metal with a relatively low melting point. It is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air.

Lead is used in the manufacture of storage batteries. It is used in ammunitions (shot and bullets) and as a constituent of solder, type metal, bearing alloys, fusible alloys, and pewter.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate.

Limestone is used in the production of cement and is also employed in glass making. It also has wide application in substances such as manufacture of quicklime, slaked lime and mortar.

Zinc

Zinc is a silvery-white metal with a blue tinge. It tarnishes in air. It is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

Zinc is used to galvanize other metals such as iron in order to prevent rusting. Galvanized steel is used for car bodies, street lamp posts, safety barriers and suspension bridges.

Zinc is also used in alloys such as brass, nickel silver and aluminum solder. It is also widely used in the manufacture of products such as paints, rubber, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics, inks, soaps, batteries, etc.

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Patrick Okon

Patrick Okon is a content developer at InfoGuideNigeria.com. InfoGuide Nigeria is a team of Resource Persons and Consultants led by Ifiokobong Ibanga. Page maintained by Ifiokobong Ibanga. If you need a personal assistance on this topic, kindly contact us.

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